Saturday, February 8, 2020
Adolescent Psychology Research Paper TopicsThe number of publications on adolescent psychology research papers have increased considerably over the last decade. Research is required in order to carry out early diagnosis and to identify the causes, effects and implications of various psychopathological disorders and developmental problems that occur during adolescence. Hence, the necessity of developing methods and tools to help in dealing with these disorders.Adolescent psychology research paper topics vary from topic to topic. However, some common themes exist. They are explained in this article.- Behavioral Disorders of adolescence such as substance abuse, drug and alcohol addiction, depression, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, anxiety and depression, suicidal behaviors and aggressive behaviors are often diagnosed in adolescence. Such symptoms lead to serious mental disorders and consequences, which include drop out from school and loss of employment. Therefore it is very import ant to understand the characteristics and signs of such psychological disorders. With the help of methods and tools the development of methods for recognizing their symptoms can be carried out.- Serious physical disorders like cancer, heart attack, stroke, digestive problems, kidney diseases, diseases of the brain and other such physical disorders which occur in adolescence are usually identified in adolescence. Such disorders may cause a major loss of quality of life and also a large number of lives may be lost.- Social Behavior Disorders of adolescence is the typical conditions for which social skills training is given to students. Such training helps them to learn the language, the rules and regulation of social interactions, social skills which are important in leading a successful social life. With the help of methods and tools it is possible to identify and treat such disorders and also to develop methods for identifying symptoms of such disorders. For further research it is n ecessary to develop methods to determine the age-related changes in social behavior.- Appropriate methods for developing and implementing psychological treatments and intervention are required for treatment of such disorders. Methods for identifying symptoms, evaluating and training therapists are required.These methods are useful for researching the various forms of disorders, researches and for developing effective methods for dealing with them. It is important to collect the experiences and viewpoints of experts, professionals and practitioners in order to understand the varying factors that contribute to the occurrence of psychopathological disorders in different individuals.
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Get the Scoop on Topics to Write about for a Narrative Essay Before You're Too Late Completing a paper may be a time-consuming approach. Essays are among the most typical assignments, and every one of them has a specific set of requirements to fulfill. Morality has a collection of unsolved problems, the solution on which usually presents a decision. Be conscious of the size it must be and get started writing the narrative essay outline. Your essay's details determine the grade of the writing. When the topic was decided it's time to make an outline containing as many details as possible. Picking a topic is the very first and foremost step to find the procedure started. Definitions of Topics to Write about for a Narrative Essay When you choose a topic you're passionate about it makes it possible to compose an exceptional and captivating story. Irrelevant details will shift the focus of your readers and they won't be able to comprehend the story. Bear in mind a topic can help determine the result of a narrative. The absolute most important is to pick the appealing theme. Quite simply, everything is dependent entirely on you. How it is possible to plan a terrific narrative essay topic is going to be to sit down and really think. When you're writing a narrative essay, attempt to reveal the topic you've selected and come to a very clear conclusion. To compose a narrative essay step-by-step, you will need an outline for your essay. The subject of the essay has become the most important element of a narrative essay. There are struggles that could easily be eliminated when you're in the early phases of writing your personal narrative essay. In a narration, it's beneficial to comprehend who is who. There's more than 1 way to compose a narrative essay. The great narrative essay demands enough moment. What Is So Fascinating About Topics to Write about for a Narrative Essay? The tricky thing about the narrative essay is there are always some limits to the sum of content you are able to offer your readers with. There are several things worth sharing. If you're fortunate enough to travel from time to time, be certain that you write about the situations you've seen and the people that you've met. Tell about the important person who you appreciate. Life, Death and Topics to Write about for a Narrative Essay As a guideline, five paragraphs are good to begin with. 5 paragraph narrative essay is a normal size that will enable you to cover the important points of the subject and reveal the plot to the readers. The conclusion is just as critical as the other sections. Each description and statement ought to be vivid. The Do's and Don'ts of Topics to Write about for a Narrative Essay The relevance to the principal statement you make should be quite clear. It's tough to pick just 1 topic whenever there are so many you could write about. When it regards narrative essay topics, there are lots of things you must take into consideration. Listed below are guidelines about how to begin a narrative essay. With a profound sample, you'll be more conscious of what topic is more inclined to connect with your readers and what is going to miss the target. The topic has to be significant and meaningful. The Upside to Topics to Write about for a Narrative Essay Writing events in a chronological manner is the most essential element to bear in mind whilst writing a narrative essay. Biographies are factual accounts of someone's life. Interview or research someone who has inspired you and compose a nonfiction narrative about their childhood. Stories about traveling have an outstanding potential. Writing in the very first person offers you the chance to narrate events like they were happening at exactly the same moment. As a result, if you truly feel just like you don't have enough time to finish your paper or you don't have any clue on how best to compose a narrative essay, there are on-line writing businesses that it is possible to turn to for guidance.
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
The Basics of Theme Essay Example College Top Theme Essay Example College Choices The quotations demonstrate the point you're making. So, the novel essentially is made up of themes that are associated with the spirits, relatives and houses. Colleges want a feeling of maturity and introspectionpinpoint the transformation and demonstrate your private growth. The theme isn't something which is obviously stated. The Number One Question You Must Ask for Theme Essay Example College So you don't actually need to obtain a topic! The author starts with a rather in depth story of an event or description of an individual or place. Essays are your very best friend. Perfect essay is the secret to your success and at precisely the same time a particular step to overcome on the best way to your future career! What You Should Do to Find Out About Theme Essay Example College Before You're Left Behind In case there's some time prior to the shipping date, it's possible to easily enhance the college essay example with small alterations. It's very useful to take writing apart so as to see just the way that it accomplishes its objectives. Introduction and conclusion are a few of the most crucial sections of any essay and thus they ought to be written perfectly well as a way to get the very best mark. Your response shouldn't be a book report. When you're looking for an ideal essay example, attempt to concentrate on the nice examples of introductions also. If you are searching for a suitable conclusion for an essay example you're on a very good way too. An excellent thesis statement will accomplish precisely the same thing. Most significantly, it makes a statement. An introduction of the essay is among the most essential sections of the paper. An essay was defined in a number of means. It is the most important part of a college appllication see sample essays perfect for applying to schools in the us. To provide you with a remedy about how to compose an impress ive college essay, here are a couple hints you may wish to consider. When reviewing the piece you're writing about, it's wise to take notes on the key points of interest so you can explain them and offer details on them in your paper in the class of work. The bit of admissions should contain your reflections dependent on the material you've worked on. When writing a college paper example, it's expected you will give a thorough response to the proposed topic. When you're looking for a fantastic instance of essay topic, you might discover that it's important to look at that sometimes the professor would demand a presentation or a speech as well as the written essay, so remember to choose something you can easily speak about. What You Don't Know About Theme Essay Example College 09 Aug 2018 For the bulk of students the college essay is the worst portion of their application procedure, it is similar to a challenge in their opinion. Getting to a college can make things a great deal simpler to you, especially in regards to additional education and car eer development and the college enables you do develop new concepts and ideas throughout the paper writing and the main reason why various subjects are the portion of routine discussions is the evolution of the critical and analytical thinking. Colleges are more inclined to admit students who can articulate certain explanations for why the school is an excellent fit about them beyond its reputation or ranking on any list. You may always check college essay examples to learn how other students play with literary method to justify their personal ideas. Ruthless Theme Essay Example College Strategies Exploited Individual schools sometimes need supplemental essays. It's therefore important to cautiously consider different college essay topics. Stephen's essay is rather effective. Writing an essay has to be stressful. Theme Essay Example College - Dead or Alive? Searching for the very best essay templates are able to help you start up your writing endeavor. Your stories aren't d ebatable. At times you can discover the theme merely by reading through the work and on the lookout for topics that seem repeatedly. The very first step in discovering the theme of a literary object like a brief story or a novel is by taking a look at its title. Facts, Fiction and Theme Essay Example College To start with, you ought to know the difference between persuasive and argumentative essay. On-line education is like a normal college education. You should demonstrate that you understand all the issues that are discussed. Though both are believed to be about the exact same issues facts, arguments and persuasion there are a few differences. Bear in mind that superior academic writing takes quite a long time and requires lots of efforts. You're attempting to show colleges your very best self, therefore it might appear counterintuitive to willingly acknowledge a time you struggled. Colleges are not searching for perfect individuals. A terrific essay is able to help y ou get accepted to your dream school. Study your work you're studying and see whether there are any allusions. The list of the greatest argumentative essay topics for college students contains nice and versatile tips that will boost your students and make them think.
Data Analysis for a business making - Essay Example c. The model will be solved through the help of the objective function applied, in which the decisions variables will be used in terms of controlling the operations and also avoiding the constraints to get the maximized productivity. d. One of the main constraints in the functional operations was limiting the machineÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity due to the depreciation. Another main constraint was time management. The constraint that was not problematic was the labor issue, i.e. they worked properly. e. The reduction in the profit means either the low pricing or the higher material or labor costs. The value of the objective function will change because of the productivity concerns. Because as the material cost has increased, so a limitation will be applied on the working of the machine and the lesser productivity will be the case. f. The value of additional value of additional minute of time per week for the devices numbered 1 to 4 will be respectively as follows: 600, 390, 330, and 204. Th e company must add more test device time on 4th and 3rd device as they have experienced to be consuming lesser time. g. The management of the company should make the corrective measures in terms of the cost reduction techniques and profit maximizing mechanisms. The officials must hire firstly the trained engineers who must know everything about the functions of the machines and how the constraints can be avoided. The company needs maximum productivity and for that it is imperative to train the engineers or flour managers so that they already know what types of constraints can be there and must avoid them to keep the productivity maximized. Also the management must also make sure that the decision variables are only those that can really be controlled and they should be working for the interest of the company for taking the profits to maximized level, and also keeping the costs to the minimum level as that will be the key for the maximum profits. The company must also make sure that the objective functions are properly executed as they will be the important indicators for the success of the maximum productivity. Task 2: a. Mathematical expression for the linear programming function can be written as: Ã The constraints are as follows: These constraints actually mean that the productivity will be low if the resources are not applied efficiently, and the one reason might be the inefficiency of the labor. b. The optimal solution will require the client to follow a specific diet each day which will maximize the chances and objectives which he intends to achieve. The chocolate of 50 grams and sugar of 100 grams might be the best diet for him through which he can meet his aims. This will also incur him the minimum cost, as his problem is more intense but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the job of his doctor to suggest the prescriptions that can cost him less but offer him more. c. The creation of the objective function required the programming for which the matlab and java are best pr ograms. The data can be included there along with some calculations and programming. d. Yes, the resources are fully utilized and the materials before being utilized were in stable form and that is why the product quality will also be fine. The only source that was not utilized properly was related to the labor. The management experience of lesser labor doing more work that cannot be handled by them might be the one problem that caused the lack of the productivity that was
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The Introduction To Malicious Software Computer Science Essay Malware is a collective term for any malicious software which enters system without authorization of user of the system. The term is created from amalgamation the words malicious and software. Malware is a very big hazard in todays computing world. It continues to grow in capacity and advance in complexity. As more and more organization try to address the difficulty, the number of websites distribute the malware is rising at an frightening rate and is getting out of control. Most of the malware enters the system while downloading files over Internet. Once the malicious software finds its way into the system, it scans for vulnerabilities of operating system and perform unintended actions on the system finally slowing down the performance of the system. Malware has ability to infect other executable code, data/system files, boot partitions of drives, and create excessive traffic on network leading to denial of service. When user executes the infected file; it becomes resident in memory and infect any other file executed afterwards. If operating system has a vulnerability, malware can also take control of system and infect other systems on network. Such malicious programs (virus is more popular term) are also known as parasites and adversely affect the performance of machine generally resulting in slow-down. Some malware are very easy to detect and remove through antivirus software. These antivirus software maintains a repository of virus signatures i.e., binary pattern characteristic of malicious code. Files suspected to be infected are checked for presence of any virus signatures. This method of detection worked well until the malware writer started writing polymorphic malware  and metamorphic malware. These variant of malware avoid detection through use of encryption techniques to thwart signature based detection. Security products such as virus scanners look for characteristics byte sequence (signature) to identify malicious code. The quality of the detector is determined by the techniques employed for detection. A stealth malware detection technique must be able to identify malicious code that is hidden or embedded in the original program and should have some capability for detection of yet unknown malware. Commercial virus scanners have very low resilience to new attacks because malware writers continuously make use of new obfuscation methods so that the malware could evade detections. 2.1 Computer Virus A computer virus is basically a program which is written by the programmers whose behaviour is to replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. The term virus is also normally, but incorrectly, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware .and these spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability. Malware includes various computer viruses, such as computer worms, Trojan horses, most of them are rootkits, spyware which are also considered as dishonest adware and other malicious or redundant software, including proper viruses. Viruses are occasionally confused with worms and Trojan horses, which are theoretically different. A worm can exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself repeatedly to other computers through networks, while a Trojan horse is a program that appears nontoxic but hides malicious functions. Worms and Trojan horses, like viruses, may harm a computer systems data or recital. Some viruses and other malware have symptoms noticeable to the computer user, but many are surreptitious or simply do nothing to call attention to themselves. Some viruses do nothing beyond reproducing themselves. An example of a virus which is not a malware, but is putatively benevolent, is Fred Cohens theoretical compression virus. However, various antivirus professionals dont admit the concept of kindly viruses, as any beloved function can be implemented without involving a virus automatic compression, for instance, is available under the Windows operating system at the choice of the user. Any virus will by definition make unconstitutional changes to a computer, which is undesirable even if no damage is done or intended. On page one of Dr Solomons Virus pdf, the undesirability of viruses, even those that do nothing but reproduce, is thoroughly explained. 2.1.1 Academic Work Veith Risak published the article whose title was as follows Selbstreproduzierende Automaten mit minimaler Information sÃ ¼bertragung (Self-reproducing automaton with minimum information switch over). The article described a fully serviceable virus written in assembler language for a particular SIEMENS 4004/35 computer system. In the year 1980 JÃ ¼rgen Kraus wrote his thesis on Selbstreproduktion bei Programmen at the University of Dortmund. In his work Kraus guess that computer programs can behave in a way parallel to biological viruses. In the year of 1984 Fred Cohen at the University of Southern California wrote his paper on the Computer Viruses Theory and Experiments. It was the first paper of him in which he has explained to clearly call a self-reproducing program a virus, a term introduced by Cohens mentor Leonard Adleman. Fred Cohen published a exhibition that there is no algorithm that can perfectly detect all potential viruses. An article that published on malware that describes useful virus functionalities was available by J. B. Gunn in the title Use of virus functions to provide a virtual APL predictor under user control in 1984. 2.1.2 Science Fiction There are several myths associated with the science.The actual term virus was first used to symbolize a self-reproducing program in a small story by David Gerrold in Galaxy magazine in 1969-and later in his 1972 novel, When HARLIE Was One. In that novel, a attentive computer named HARLIE writes viral software to recover damaging personal information from other computers to blackmail the man who wants to turn him off. Michael Crichton told as a sideline story of a computer with telephone modem dialing potential, which had been automatic to randomly dial phone numbers until it hit a modem that is answered by another computer. It was an attempt to program the answer computer with its own program, so that the second computer would also begin dialing unsystematic numbers, in search of yet a different computer to program. The program is assumed to spread exponentially through susceptible computers. 2.1.3 Virus Programs The Creeper virus was first detected on ARPANET, the prototype of the Internet, in the early 1970s. Creeper was an new self-replicating program developed by Bob Thomas at BBN Technologies in 1971. Creeper has used the ARPANET to infect DEC PDP-10 computers which are running on the TENEX operating system. Creeper gain admission via the ARPANET and banal itself to the isolated system where there was a message, Im the creeper, catch me if you can! was displayed. The Reaper program was created to delete Creeper. A program called which is known as Elk Cloner was the first PC virus to appear in the uncultivated that is, outside the single computer or lab where it was created by Richard Skrenta, it attached itself to the Apple DOS 3.3 operating system and spread via floppy disk. This virus, created as a practical joke when Skrenta was studying in the high school and was injected in a game on a floppy disk. On his 50th iterative use the Elk Cloner virus would be activate, which prone to infecting the PCs and displaying a short poem beginning Elk Cloner: The program with a personality. The first IBM PC virus in the natural was a boot sector virus dubbed and created by the Farooq Alvi Brothers in Lahore, Pakistan, seemingly to deter piracy of the software they had written. Before computer networks became widespread, most viruses spread on removable media, particularly floppy disks. In the early days of the PCs, many users frequently exchanged their information and programs on floppies. Some of the viruses are spread by infecting programs which are stored on these disks, while others programs installed themselves into the disk boot sector, which ensure that they would be run when the user booted the computer from the disk, usually inadvertently. Personal computers of the period would try to boot from the floppy at first if one had been left in the drive. Until floppy disks rejects, this was the most unbeaten infection strategy and that is why boot sector viruses were the most common in the wild for many years. Conventional computer viruses emerge in the 1980s, that are driven by the spread of PCs and the consequential increase in BBS, modem use, and software sharing. Bulletin board-driven software giving out contributed directly to the swell of Trojan horse programs, and computer viruses which were written to infect readily traded software. Shareware and bootleg software were equally common vectors for viruses on BB Systems Viruses can increase their chances of spreading over the several other computers which in networks by infecting the files on the particular network file system or a file system which can be access by other computers Macro viruses have become common since the mid-1990s. Most of these viruses are written in the scripting languages for Microsoft programs such as MS-Word and MS-Excel and spread throughout Microsoft Office by infecting documents and spreadsheets. Since Word processor and Excel spread sheets were also available for Mac OS, most could also spread to Macintosh computers. Although most of these computer viruses may not have the capability to send contaminated email messages to those viruses which did take advantage of the Microsoft Outlook COM interface. Some old versions of Microsoft Word allow macros to repeat themselves with added blank lines. If two macro viruses concurrently infect a document, the combination of the two, if also self-replicating, can appear as a mating of the two and would likely be detected as a virus unique from the parents. A virus may also send a web address link as an instant message to all the contacts on an infected machine. If the recipient, thinking the link is from a friend which isa trusted source follows the link to the website, the virus hosted at the site may be able to infect this new computer and continue propagating. Viruses that spread using cross-site scripting were first reported in 2002, and were academically demonstrated in 2005.There have been multiple instances of the cross-site scripting viruses in the wild, exploiting websites such as MySpace and Yahoo!. 2.2 Classification In order to replicate itself, a virus must be permitted to execute code and write to memory. For this reason, many viruses attach themselves to executable files that may be part of legitimate programs (see code injection). If a user attempts to begin an infected program, the virus code may be executed concurrently. Viruses can be separated into two types based on their performance when they are executed. Nonresident viruses straight away search for other hosts system or OS which can be infected, or infect those targets, and finally transfer organize to the application program they infected. Tenant viruses do not search for hosts when they are happening. Instead, a resident virus masses itself into memory on execution and transfers control to the host program. The virus stays active in the background and infects new hosts when those files are accessed by other programs or the operating system itself. 2.2.1 Nonresident Viruses Nonresident viruses can be notion of as consisting of a finder module and a replication module. The finder module is responsible for finding new files to infect. For each new executable file the finder module encounters, it calls the replication module to infect that file. 2.2.2 Resident Viruses Resident viruses contain a replication module which is parallel to the one that is engaged by nonresident viruses. This section, however, is not called by a finder module. The virus masses the duplication module into memory when it is executed instead and ensures that this module is executed each time the operating system is called to carry out a certain operation. The replication module can be called, for example, each time the operating system executes a file. In this case the virus infects every suitable program that is executed on the computer. Resident viruses are sometimes can be divided into a class of fast infectors and a class of slow infectors. Fast infectors are those which are designed to infect as many files as soon as possible. A fast infector, for instance, can infect every potential host file that is accessed. This pose a special difficulty when using anti-virus software, since a virus scanner will access every prospective host file on a computer when it performs a system-wide scan. If the virus scanner fails to notice that such a virus is present in memory the virus can piggy-back on the virus scanner and in this way infect all files that are scanned. Fast infectors rely on their fast infection rate to spread. The disadvantage of this method is that infecting many files may make detection more likely, because the virus may slow down a computer or perform many suspicious actions that can be noticed by anti-virus software. Slow infectors, on the other hand, are designed to infect hosts infrequently. Some slow infectors, for instance, only infect files when they are copied. Slow infectors are designed to avoid detection by limiting their actions: they are less likely to slow down a computer noticeably and will, at most, infrequently trigger anti-virus software that detects suspicious behavior by programs. The slow infector approach, however, does not seem very successful. In most of the operating systems which use file extensions to determine program relations such as Microsoft Windows. The extensions may be normally hidden from the user by default. This makes it probable to create a file that is of a different type than it appears to the users or programmers. For example, an executable file may be created named picture.png.exe, in which the user sees only picture.png and therefore assumes that this file is an image and most likely is safe, yet when opened runs the executable on the client machine. An additional scheme is to generate the virus system from parts of existing operating system files by using the CRC16/CRC32 data. The initial code can be quite small (tens of bytes) and unpack a fairly large virus. This is analogous to a biological prion in the way it works but is vulnerable to signature based detection. This attack has not yet been seen in the wild. 2.3 Infection Strategies Virus avoids detection by users, some viruses employ different kinds of deception. Some of the old viruses, especially on the MS-DOS operating system, make sure that the last modified date of a host file stays the same when the file is infected by the virus. This approach does not fool antivirus software, however, especially those which maintain and date cyclic redundancy checks on file changes. Some viruses can infect files without increasing their sizes or damaging the files. They accomplish this by overwriting unused areas of executable files. These are called cavity viruses. For example, the CIH virus, or Chernobyl Virus, infects Portable Executable files. Because those files have many empty gaps, the virus, which was 1 KB in length, did not add to the size of the file. Some viruses try to avoid detection by killing the tasks associated with antivirus software before it can detect them. As computers and operating systems grow larger and more complex, old hiding techniques need to be updated or replaced. Defending a computer against viruses may demand that a file system migrate towards detailed and explicit permission for every kind of file access. 2.3.1 Read Request Intercepts While some antivirus software employ various techniques to counter stealth mechanisms, once the infection occurs any recourse to clean the system is unreliable. In Microsoft Windows operating systems, the NTFS file system is proprietary. Direct access to files without using the Windows OS is undocumented. This leaves antivirus software little alternative but to send a read request to Windows OS files that handle such requests. Some viruses trick antivirus software by intercepting its requests to the OS. A virus can hide itself by intercepting the request to read the infected file, handling the request itself, and return an uninfected version of the file to the antivirus software. The interception can occur by code injection of the actual operating system files that would handle the read request. Thus, an antivirus software attempting to detect the virus will either not be given permission to read the infected file, or, the read request will be served with the uninfected version of the same file. File hashes stored in Windows, to identify altered Windows files, can be overwritten so that the System File Checker will report that system files are originals. The only reliable method to avoid stealth is to boot from a medium that is known to be clean. Security software can then be used to check the dormant operating system files. Most security software relies on virus signatures or they employ heuristics, instead of also using a database of file hashes for Windows OS files. Using file hashes to scan for altered files would guarantee removing an infection. The security software can identify the altered files, and request Windows installation media to replace them with authentic versions. 2.3.2 Self-Modification Most modern antivirus programs try to find virus-patterns inside ordinary programs by scanning them for so-called virus signatures. Unfortunately, the term is misleading, in that viruses do not possess unique signatures in the way that human beings do. Such a virus signature is merely a sequence of bytes that an antivirus program looks for because it is known to be part of the virus. A better term would be search strings. Different antivirus programs will employ different search strings, and indeed different search methods, when identifying viruses. If a virus scanner finds such a pattern in a file, it will perform other checks to make sure that it has found the virus, and not merely a coincidental sequence in an innocent file, before it notifies the user that the file is infected. The user can then delete, or in some cases clean or heal the infected file. Some viruses employ techniques that make detection by means of signatures difficult but probably not impossible. These viru ses modify their code on each infection. That is, each infected file contains a different variant of the virus. 2.3.3 Encryption With A Variable Key A more advanced method is the use of simple encryption to encipher the virus. In this case, the virus consists of a small decrypting dependent methods and an encrypted copy of the virus code. If the virus is encrypted with the help of different key for each infected file, the only part of the virus that leftovers stable is the decrypting unit, which would (for example) be appended to the end. In this case, a virus scanner will not able to detect directly the virus using signatures, but it can still detect the decrypting unit, which still makes indirect revealing of the virus possible. Since these would be symmetric keys, stored on the infected host. In fact completely possible to decrypt the final virus, but this is almost certainly not required, since self-modifying code is such a scarcity that it may be basis for virus scanners to at least flag the file as suspicious. This may be old , but solid, encryption involves XORing each byte in a virus with a even, so that the exclusive-or operation has only to be frequent for decryption. It is doubtful for a code to adjust itself, so the code to do the encryption as wll as decryption may be part of the signature in many virus definition. 2.3.4 Polymorphic Code Polymorphic code was the first technique that posed a serious threat to virus scanners. Likewise various normal encrypted viruses such as a polymorphic virus infects files with an encrypted copy of itself, which may be decoded by a decryption method. In the case of polymorphic viruses or polymorphic worms, however, this decryption module is also modified on each infection. A well-written polymorphic virus thus has no parts which wait identical between infection, making it very difficult to detect directly using signatures. Antivirus software can detect it by decrypting the viruses using an emulator, or by statistical pattern analysis of the encrypted virus body. To enable polymorphic code, the virus has must have a polymorphic engine which is also called mutating engine or mutation engine anywhere in its encrypted body. Some viruses employ polymorphic code in a system that constrain the change rate of the virus appreciably. For example, a virus can be planned to alter only slightly over time, or it can be programmed to refrain from mutating when it infects a file on a computer that previously contains copies of the virus. The benefit of using such sluggish polymorphic code is that it makes it more difficult for antivirus professionals to get representative sample of the virus, because tempt files that are infected in one run will naturally have identical or parallel sample of the virus. This will make it more liable that the detection by the virus scanner will be variable, and that some instances of the virus may be able to avoid detection. 2.3.5 Metamorphic Code To avoid being detected by emulation, some viruses revise themselves completely each time they are to infect new executables. Viruses that make use of this technique are said to be metamorphic. To enable metamorphism, a metamorphic engine must be needed. A metamorphic virus is usually very large and complex. For example, W32/Simile consists of over 15,000 lines of assembly language code, 90% of which is part of the metamorphic engine. 2.3.6 Avoiding Bait Files and other Undesirable Hosts A virus wants to infect hosts in order to multiply further. In some cases, it might be a bad idea to infect a mass program. For example, many antivirus softwares perform an integrity check of their own code. Infecting such programs will therefore increase the likelihood that the virus is detected. For this reason, some viruses are programmed not to infect programs that are known to be part of antivirus software. Another type of host that viruses sometimes avoid are bait files. Bait files (or goat files) are files that are specially created by antivirus software, or by antivirus professionals themselves, to be infected by a virus. These files can be created for various reasons, all of which are related to the detection of the virus: Antivirus professionals can use tempt files to take a test of a virus. It is more realistic to store and exchange a small, infected lure file, than to swap a large application program that has been infected by the virus. Antivirus professionals can use bait files to study the actions of a virus and assess detection methods. This is particularly useful when the virus is polymorphic. In this case, the virus can be made to infect a large number of entice files. The grimy files can be used to test whether a virus scanner detects all versions of the virus. Some antivirus software employ bait files that are accessed regularly. When these files are modified, the antivirus software warns the user that a virus is probably active on the system. Since bait files are used to detect the virus, or to make detection possible, a virus can benefit from not infecting them. Viruses typically do this by avoiding suspicious programs, such as small program files or programs that contain certain patterns of garbage instructions. A related strategy to make baiting difficult is sparse infection. Sometimes, sparse infectors do not infect a host file that would be a suitable candidate for infection in other circumstances. For example, a virus can decide on a random basis whether to infect a file or not, or a virus can only infect host files on particular days of the week. 2.4 Vulnerability and Countermeasures 2.4.1 The Vulnerability of Operating Systems to Viruses Just as genetic diversity in a population decreases the chance of a single disease wiping out a population, the diversity of software systems on a network similarly limits the destructive potential of viruses. This became a particular concern in the 1990s, when Microsoft gained market dominance in desktop operating systems and office suites. Microsoft software is targeted by virus writers due to their desktop dominance. Although Windows is by far the most popular target operating system for virus writers, viruses also exist on other platforms. Any operating system that allows third-party programs to run can theoretically run viruses. As of 2006, there were at least 60 known security exploits targeting the base installation of Mac OS X (with a Unix-based file system and kernel). The number of viruses for the older Apple operating systems, known as Mac OS Classic, varies greatly from source to source, with Apple stating that there are only four known viruses, and independent sources stating there are as many as 63 viruses. Many Mac OS Classic viruses targeted the HyperCard authoring environment. The difference in virus vulnerability between Macs and Windows is a chief selling point, one that Apple uses in their Get a Mac advertising. In January 2009, Symantec announced the discovery of a Trojan that targets Macs. This discovery did not gain much coverage until April 2009. While Linux, and Unix in general, has always natively blocked normal users from having access to make changes to the operating system environment, Windows users are generally not. This difference has continued partly due to the widespread use of administrator accounts in contemporary versions like XP. In 1997, when a virus for Linux was released-known as Bliss-leading antivirus vendors issued warnings that Unix-like systems could fall prey to viruses just like Windows. The Bliss virus may be considered characteristic of viruses-as opposed to worms-on Unix systems. Bliss requires that the user run it explicitly, and it can only infect programs that the user has the access to modify. Unlike Windows users, most Unix users do not log in as an administrator user except to install or configure software; as a result, even if a user ran the virus, it could not harm their operating system. The Bliss virus never became widespread, and remains chiefly a research curiosity. Its creator later posted the source code to Usenet, allowing researchers to see how it worked. 2.4.2 The Role of Software Development Because software is often designed with security features to prevent unauthorized use of system resources, many viruses must exploit software bugs in a system or application to spread. Software development strategies that produce large numbers of bugs will generally also produce potential exploits. 2.4.3 Anti-Virus Software and other Preventive Measures Many users install anti-virus software that can detect and eliminate known viruses after the computer downloads or runs the executable. There are two common methods that an anti-virus software application uses to detect viruses. The first, and by far the most common method of virus detection is using a list of virus signature definitions. This works by examining the content of the computers memory (its RAM, and boot sectors) and the files stored on fixed or removable drives (hard drives, floppy drives), and comparing those files against a database of known virus signatures. The disadvantage of this detection method is that users are only protected from viruses that pre-date their last virus definition update. The second method is to use a heuristic algorithm to find viruses based on common behaviors. This method has the ability to detect novel viruses that anti-virus security firms have yet to create a signature for. Some anti-virus programs are able to scan opened files in addition to sent and received email messages on the fly in a similar manner. This practice is known as on-access scanning. Anti-virus software does not change the underlying capability of host software to transmit viruses. Users must update their software regularly to patch security holes. Anti-virus software also needs to be regularly updated in order to recognize the latest threats. One may also minimize the damage done by viruses by making regular backups of data (and the operating systems) on different media, that are either kept unconnected to the system (most of the time), read-only or not accessible for other reasons, such as using different file systems. This way, if data is lost through a virus, one can start again using the backup (which should preferably be recent). If a backup session on optical media like CD and DVD is closed, it becomes read-only and can no longer be affected by a virus (so long as a virus or infected file was not copied onto the CD/DVD). Likewise, an operating system on a bootable CD can be used to start the computer if the installed operating systems become unusable. Backups on removable media must be carefully inspected before restoration. The Gammima virus, for example, propagates via removable flash drives. 2.4.4 Recovery Methods A number of recovery options exist after a computer has a virus. These actions depend on the virus. Some may be safely removed by functions available in most anti-virus software products. Others may require re-installation of damaged programs. It is necessary to know the characteristics of the virus involved to take the correct action, and anti-virus products will identify known viruses precisely before trying to dis-infect a computer; otherwise such action could itself cause a lot of damage. New viruses that anti-virus researchers have not yet studied therefore present an ongoing problem, which requires anti-virus packages to be updated frequently. 2.4.5 Virus Removal One possibility on Windows Me, Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 is a tool known as System Restore, which restores the registry and critical system files to a previous checkpoint. Often a virus will cause a system to hang, and a subsequent hard reboot will render a system restore point from the same day corrupt. Restore points from previous days should work provided the virus is not designed to corrupt the restore files and does not exist in previous restore points. Some viruses disable System Restore and other important tools such as Task Manager and Command Prompt. An example of a virus that does this is Cia Door. Many such viruses can be removed by rebooting the computer, entering Windows safe mode , and then using system tools. Many websites run by anti-virus software companies provide free online virus scanning, with limited cleaning facilities (the purpose of the sites is to sell anti-virus products). Some websites allow a single suspicious file to be checked by many antivirus programs in one operation. Additionally, several capable antivirus software programs are available for free download from the internet (usually restricted to non-commercial use), and Microsoft provide a free anti-malware utility that runs as part of their regular Windows update regime. 2.4.6 Operating System Reinstallation Reinstalling any OS is another loom to virus removal. It involves either reformatting the computers hard disk drive and installing the operating system and
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The Simpsons This cartoon for grown-ups takes place in a fictional town called Springfield in the 1990's. The main character in the show is Homer Simpsons, a father of three and a husband. Homer works at the Springfield nuclear power plant. He is portrayed as a slacker who is completely unqualified for his job. He's also shown as a lazy couch potato and a little bit of an alcoholic. He's also shown as a "pig" when it comes to food. His wife, Marge, is a good parent who has to keep an eye on Homer and the rest of the family most of the time. Bart, their oldest son, is a poor student who enjoys comic books and television and hates girls. Lisa, the middle child of the family, is an excellent student and a nice person. She is almost the complete opposite of Bart except they both enjoy the violent cartoons of "Itchy and Scratchy". Maggie, the baby of the family, is known for constantly smacking her pacifier. She is portrayed as being smarter than Homer. Almost every little thing in the show is intended tobe humorous. In general the show is very funny but has some bad language and other offensive material. The fact that the show is a cartoon may be what has kept some people from watching. The cartoon though is what helps achieve many of the humorous aspects. For example a spill of nuclear waste would not be very amusing in a show with real people. The show has the assumption that it is OK if your family argues all the time. It shows this by the little arguments that the family constantly gets into. It also shows that it's pointless to try to be good all the time.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Adjustment Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment Adjustment disorder is a mental disorder that results from unhealthy responses to stressful or psychologically distressing events in life. This failure to adapt then leads to the development of emotional and behavioral symptoms. All age groups are affected by this disorder; and children have the same chance of developing the illness. While difficult to determine the causes of adjustment disorder, researchers suggest that genetics play a large part, as well as chemical changes in the brain, life experiences and mood. Some common stressor contributing to the disorder ncludes; the ending of a romantic relationship, loss of a Job, career change, an accident, relocating to a new area or loss of a loved one. (Mayo Clinic, 2010) An adjustment disorder causes feelings of depression, anxiousness, crying spells, sadness, desperation, lack of enjoyment, and some have reported experiencing thoughts of suicide. Additionally, the illness causes one to be unable to go about their normal routine or work and visit with friends and family. The lengths of symptoms vary from zero to six months (acute) and longer than six months (chronic). In the cases of acute adjustment disorder, symptoms can go away eventually; however, in chronic cases, symptoms begin to disrupt your life whereas, professional treatment is necessary to prevent the illness from worsening. Lastly, this disorder carries the possibility for abuse of alcohol and drugs, and eventually could result in violent behavior. According to a report issued by Tami Benton of WebMD, Ã¢â¬Å"the development of emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to an identifiable stressor(s) occurs within 3 months of the onset of the stressor(s). These symptoms or behaviors are linically significant, as evidenced by marked distress in excess of what is expected from exposure to the stressor, or significant impairment in social or occupational (academic) functioning. The stress-related disturbance does not meet criteria for another specific axis I disorder and is not merely an exacerbation of a preexisting axis I or axis II disorder. The symptoms do not represent bereavement. Once the stressor (or its consequences) has terminated, the symptoms do not persist for more than an additional 6 monthsÃ¢â¬ . A determination is made as to whether the illness is acute or chronic. A differential diagnosis issued by Benton states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Adjustment DisorderÃ¢â¬â¢s (AD) are located on a continuum between normal stress reactions and specific psychiatric disorders. Symptoms are not likely a normal reaction if the symptoms are moderately severe or if daily social or occupational functioning is impaired. If a specific stressor is involved and/or the symptoms are not specific but are severe, alternate diagnoses (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, depression or anxiety due to a general medical condition) are unlikelyÃ¢â¬â¢. Benton, 2009) Ã¢â¬Å"Clinical treatment modalities are difficult due to lack of clinical trials; as these AD originates from a psychological reaction to a stressor, the stressor must be identified and communicated by the patient. The non-adaptive response to the stressor may be diminished if the stress can be Ã¢â¬Å"eliminated, reduced or accommodated. Therefore, treatment of ADS entails psychotherapeutic counseling aimed at reducing the stressor, improving coping ability with stressors that cannot be reduced or removed, and formatting an emotional state and support systems to enhance adaptation and coping. Further, the goal of psychotherapy should include; an analysis of the stressors that are affecting the patient, and determine whether they can be eliminated or minimized, clarification and interpretation of the meaning of the stressor for the patient, reframe the meaning of the stressor, illuminate the concerns and conflicts the patient experiences, identification of a means to reduce the stressor, maximize the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s coping skills, assist patients to gain perspective on the stressor, establish relationships, attend support groups, and manage themselves and the stressor. Psychotherapy, crisis intervention, family and group herapies, cognitive behavioral therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy are effective for eliciting the expressions of affects, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness in relation to the identified stressor(s)Ã¢â¬ . (Benton, 2009) For patients with minor or major depressive disorders, who have not responded to psychotherapy and other interventions; trials of antidepressants are recommended.